The prescribed criterion of gold and silver
There is a very clear Hadith in Sunan Abu Dawood about the criterion of gold and silver:
Translation: Hadhrat A’asim and Haarith A’awar narrate on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) who relates from the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: When you have 200 Dirham and a year passes, then it is Compulsory to give 5 Dirham as Zakaat. In gold, there is nothing Compulsory on you unless you have 20 Dinar. When you have 20 Dinar and a year passes on it, then the Zakaat in it is 1/2 Dinar. Then as the wealth exceeds this, Zakaat will be Compulsory as per these details. (Sunan Abu Dawood, Hadith No. 1575)
The aforementioned Hadith makes it clear that the criterion of silver is 200 Dirham and that of gold is 20 Dinar (Mithqaal) and it is Compulsory (Wajib) to give the 40th part of it (i.e. 2.5%) as Zakaat. As the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) declared Dirham as the standard of measure for Silver and Dinar for gold, it is necessary to find out their value. In those days, Dirham and Dinar were in vogue. In present times, there is some disagreement as to their weight as per modern times.
Maulana Mufti Ruknuddin (May Allah shower His mercy on him), the student of Hadhrat Shaykh Ul Islam Imam Muhammad Anwaarullah Farooqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him), the founder of Jamia Nizamia, who was also the first Mufti of Jamia Nizamia, has described the weights as per Hadhrat Maulana Abdul Hai Lakhnawi and Hadhrat Mulla Mubeen (May Allah shower His mercy on them):
1 Mithqaal is equal to 20 Qeeraat and 1 Dirham has been described to be of 14 Qeeraat. One Qeeraat is of 5 moderate Jau whose skins have not been removed and whose ends are long and whose skins haven’t been removed, but should be full and whole………..in not only the state of Deccan but also in the whole of India, 1 Ratti is of 4 Jau and 1 Maasha is of 8 Ratti and 1 Tola is of 12 Maasha in which the maximum limit of Tola is also 4 Jau….(Fatawa Nizamia, Pg. No. 122/123)
In present weights, the criterion of silver is 425 grams 285 milligrams of silver and that of gold is 60 grams 755 milligrams.