Zakaat - Rules and modern issues
Author: Mufti Hafidh Syed Ziauddin Naqshbandi Qadri,
Professor, Islamic Law, Jamia Nizamia.
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Category List

>> Introduction
>> Literal meaning of Zakaat
>> Shariah meaning of Zakaat
>> The command of Zakaat
>> Zakaat is not Compulsory on the Prophets
>> Importance of Zakaat
>> Glad tidings for those who give their Zakaat
>> Those who give Zakaat are successful
>> Special favors on those who give Zakaat
>> Zakaat – Easy way to gain proximity of Allah Most High
>> Giving Zakaat – Perfection of Iman
>> Warnings for those who don’t give Zakaat
>> Those who don’t give Zakaat will be punished with snakes
>> Affluence is nothing but a gift from Allah Most High
>> Those who don’t give Zakaat – Their bodies will be branded
>> Those who don’t give Zakaat will be in trouble in Qiyamah
>> Punishment with hot stones of hell
>> Wisdom behind obligation of Zakaat
>> Benefits of Zakaat, Sadqa and other forms of charity
>> Blessings of giving pure wealth in charity
>> Zakaat purifies faith
>> Charity calms the wrath of Allah
>> Charity – A shade for the believer on the Day of Judgment
>> Zakaat and other charity – A means of deliverance from hell
>> Giving Zakaat protects wealth
>> Reward of Zakaat for those who can’t give it
>> Directives for those who spend
>> Zakaat – Right of the poor folk
>> Directives for those receiving Zakaat
>> Conditions for Zakaat
>> The individual giving Zakaat should be Muslim
>> Only sane adults have to give Zakaat
>> Intention of giving Zakaat
>> Making a needy person the complete owner of the Zakaat
>> Conditions about wealth
>> Why should the wealth be of a growing nature?
>> The wealth should meet the prescribed criterion
>> The wealth should be more than the basic needs
>> What is meant by ‘basic needs’?
>> Absolute possession of the wealth
>> Why is absolute possession so necessary?
>> 1 whole year should have passed on the wealth
>> Why to wait for 1 year to pass on the wealth?
>> The wealth should be free of debt
>> Why should the wealth be free of debt for Zakaat?
>> From when should the beginning of the year be considered?
>> Fluctuations in wealth during the course of the year
>> Giving Zakaat in advance
>> Delay in giving Zakaat is a sin
>> Giving Zakaat as lump sum or in installments
>> Zakaat on animals
>> The prescribed criterion for animals
>> The prescribed criterion of gold and silver
>> Zakaat of gold and silver
>> Some issues of the Zakaat of gold and silver
>> The weight of gold/silver should be considered when giving Zakaat
>> Zakaat should be given on which price?
>> What if the criterion of gold isn’t complete?
>> Zakaat on the wealth which exceeds the prescribed criterion
>> What if gold/silver has been mixed with other metals?
>> Zakaat on personal jewelry
>> Zakaat on provident fund
>> Zakaat on fixed deposit
>> Zakaat on security amount
>> Zakaat of advance rent
>> Zakaat of dairy farm
>> Zakaat on poultry farm
>> Zakaat on insurance amount
>> Do we have to give Zakaat on the dower amount as well?
>> Zakaat on the goods in business complexes, showrooms, etc.
>> Zakaat on tools and implements
>> Zakaat on flats, lands, etc.
>> When does something come under trade goods
>> Zakaat on things given out for hire
>> Zakaat of debt
>> Zakaat on wife when the husband has debts
>> Zakaat on mortgaged jewelry
>> Zakaat of expensive clothes
>> Zakaat of precious stones
>> Zakaat of Madarsas and educational institutions
>> How to calculate Zakaat
>> Where to spend Zakaat
>> The poor folk
>> The destitute folk
>> The officials
>> For softening of hearts
>> For freeing of slaves
>> The indebted folk
>> In the path of Allah
>> The travelers
>> The command to give the Zakaat to one’s relatives
>> Zakaat should be given to local people or should be sent abroad?
>> Zakaat should be given at the place of the owner or at the place of wealth?
>> Who should a lady give Zakaat to – her relatives or her in-laws?
>> Social service with the amount of Zakaat
>> Burial of the dead with Zakaat amount
>> Zakaat can’t be given to Syed people
>> Giving Zakaat with the amount of fixed deposit and/or LIC amount
>> Waiving loan with the intention of Zakaat
>> Zakaat of unlawful earnings

 
 
The prescribed criterion of gold and silver

The prescribed criterion of gold and silver

 

There is a very clear Hadith in Sunan Abu Dawood about the criterion of gold and silver:

 

Translation: Hadhrat A’asim and Haarith A’awar narrate on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Ali (May Allah be well pleased with him) who relates from the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:  When you have 200 Dirham and a year passes, then it is Compulsory to give 5 Dirham as Zakaat.  In gold, there is nothing Compulsory on you unless you have 20 Dinar.  When you have 20 Dinar and a year passes on it, then the Zakaat in it is 1/2 Dinar.  Then as the wealth exceeds this, Zakaat will be Compulsory as per these details. (Sunan Abu Dawood, Hadith No. 1575)

 

The aforementioned Hadith makes it clear that the criterion of silver is 200 Dirham and that of gold is 20 Dinar (Mithqaal) and it is Compulsory (Wajib) to give the 40th part of it (i.e. 2.5%) as Zakaat.  As the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) declared Dirham as the standard of measure for Silver and Dinar for gold, it is necessary to find out their value.  In those days, Dirham and Dinar were in vogue.  In present times, there is some disagreement as to their weight as per modern times.

 

Maulana Mufti Ruknuddin (May Allah shower His mercy on him), the student of Hadhrat Shaykh Ul Islam Imam Muhammad Anwaarullah Farooqui (May Allah shower His mercy on him), the founder of Jamia Nizamia, who was also the first Mufti of Jamia Nizamia, has described the weights as per Hadhrat Maulana Abdul Hai Lakhnawi and Hadhrat Mulla Mubeen (May Allah shower His mercy on them):

 

1 Mithqaal is equal to 20 Qeeraat and 1 Dirham has been described to be of 14 Qeeraat.  One Qeeraat is of 5 moderate Jau whose skins have not been removed and whose ends are long and whose skins haven’t been removed, but should be full and whole………..in not only the state of Deccan but also in the whole of India, 1 Ratti is of 4 Jau and 1 Maasha is of 8 Ratti and 1 Tola is of 12 Maasha in which the maximum limit of Tola is also 4 Jau….(Fatawa Nizamia, Pg. No. 122/123)

 

In present weights, the criterion of silver is 425 grams 285 milligrams of silver and that of gold is 60 grams 755 milligrams.

 

 
 
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